2. Let us start with things that alkanes do. Which of the following is an example of a carboxylic acid? Hence, the alkanes are insoluble, while the smaller members of the aldehydes and ketones are soluble or miscible in all proportions. More reactive than alkanes, alkenes undergo Addition Reactions across the double bond. If a carbon is attached to three other carbons, it is a tertiary carbon. If a carbon is attached to two other carbons, we call it a secondary carbon. At the end step of 2B, we are left with our halogenated alkane and a single halogen atom. However, liquid alkanes are good solvents for many other non-ionic organic compounds. Which of the following compounds is a carboxylic acid? To determine mass relationships in a chemical reaction, you first need to know the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. 0000004295 00000 n An alkene that has a single alkyl group attached to the sp2 hybridised carbon atom of the double bond is monosubstituted. Remember that when it comes to polarity and non-polarity, like dissolves like. 0000001273 00000 n The smallest possible iso group is an isopropyl group. Thus, it is useful to classify alkenes by the number of alkyl groups attached to the C=C structural unit. Now there is one more thing you should know about boiling points of alkanes and alkenes; it has to do with branching. They are generally soluble in organic solvents. A student has equal-volume of samples of three gases. A cys-isomer is a dipole because charge is not symmetrically distributed around the carbon-carbon double bond. Note: The reasons for this are exactly the same as for the alkanes. Making ethane-1,2-diol used as anti-freezing for motor car radiators. In alkenes such as ethene, the carbon-carbon double bond reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid. Which of the following alcohols is least soluble in water? What is the most specific name for the C6H5- group? For the reaction A + B -> 2 C, which of the following statements is true? How many constitutional isomers are possible when there are three identical substituents on a benzene ring? An alkene means a hydrocarbon chain in which at least two of the carbons are connected by a double bond. The reactivity of the compounds with certain reactants (3 M HCl(aq), 3 M NaOH(aq), conc. So, if we attach a chlorine to the fourth side of an isopropyl group, we would have isopropyl chloride and if we attach another carbon atom, we would have an isobutyl group. The balanced equation for this reaction is: When solutions of AgNO3 and NaCl react, the balanced molecular equation is: Diethyl ether can be made from ethanol. If you think about the upper and lower sides of the double bond, you will realize that one side is going to be a little positive and one side is going to be a little negative. Solubility Alkenes are virtually insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents. Of the compounds listed here, which one is not a constitutinal isomer of the other three? Solubility usually increases as temperature increases. One of the bromine atoms robs a hydrogen atom off of the alkane and forms a molecule of hydrogen bromide. Which of the following will occur if the temperature of a gas is increased from 20 C to 40 C at constant pressure? Which of the following is an example a carboxylic ester? 0000008396 00000 n Which of the following best describes the relationship of molecules in a liquid with those in a gas at the same temperature? Some properties of alkynes are different from other hydrocarbons. How many aldehydes have the molecular formula C4H8O? What is the new volume of the gas sample? Very big alkanes and alkenes with chains that have more than 17 carbons on them are solids at room temperature. Alkenes decolourise bromine water. Like other hydrocarbons, alkenes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. You should know 2 confirmations for cyclohexane, chair and boat. The halogenation of an alkane is a chain reaction. It is under drastic conditions that they undergo reactions. In this case, the alkyl free radical reacts with another molecule of halogen to form CH3Cl. Water is polar. xref All the gases are at the same temperature and pressure. Step 1 or chain initiating step is simple. Alkynes are a category of hydrocarbons containing a Carbon-Carbon triple (C=C) bond. Which of the following is the numerical value of Kw for water at room temperature. If on the fourth side, we would attach a fluorine atom; we would have sec-butyl fluoride. Th… The thing that is usually added is a hydrogen halide like hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide or hydrogen iodide and the reaction is known as electrophilic addition. Which of the following is the correct molecular formula for hexane? In which of the following classes of organic compounds is an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom? The little dot next to the CH3 indicates that this robbed alkane molecule has an unpaired electron. So, alkanes and alkenes are not soluble in water. It is important to remember with respect to alkyl free radicals, the order of stability which is tertiary more than secondary, more than primary. Which of the following occurs when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water to form hydrochloric acid? Which aromatic ring substitution reaction is used in the preparation of synthetic detergents?