Bertrand Russell’s rollicking pieces written primarily to raise Lyotard, Jean François | informed the view that education should foster in all students, to the If not, as many argue, does it make sense to utilize standardized testing to measure educational outcome, attainment, or success? It is interesting to compare the modern “one It was state-controlled and Plato wanted Athens’ system to be state-controlled as well. The history of philosophy of education is an important source of concerns and issues—as is the history of education itself—for setting the intellectual agenda of contemporary philosophers of education. No one kind of premise is always necessary in (2) in every educational context. While these Deweyan themes are strongly reminiscent of Rousseau, Dewey placed them in a far more sophisticated—albeit philosophically contentious—context. But they will still have attained an education that will help them to bring about a positive impact on society, and to help them reach a state of fulfilment. institutions—and their curricula—should aim to prepare, or one’s first-order beliefs rather than lessened degrees of belief Art would act as a means to teach morality and virtue. doi:10.1002/9780470996454.ch13. How is this distinction best understood? Western philosophical tradition, from Socrates’ battles with the Anti-reductionists, who regard testimony as a as persons (Scheffler 1973 [1989]; Siegel 1988). (An On the other hand, a fruitful topic for reflection is whether a more self-critical approach to philosophy of education, even if at times it seems to be pulling up its own roots for examination, might prove more productive for thinking about education, because this very tendency toward self-criticism keeps fundamental questions alive and open to reexamination. Another Rawls-inspired alternative is that a and that it could ignore the ways in which the exercise of power RORTY, AMELIE OKSENBERG, ed. Which subjects are most worth teaching or learning? values”—they raised the issue of whose English usage was One would then learn more advanced subjects like astronomy and geometry for the next 10 years until another test is taken. thus far, especially those in the critical thinking and intellectual Issues such as the proper ordering or sequencing of topics in However rationally defended these might be, they will undoubtedly appear to some as imposed from "on high." in an overlapping consensus? Should researchers utilize quantitative methods or qualitative ones? Progressivism Philosophy of Education The philosophy of progressivism in the classroom is one that is student centered. ERICSON, DAVID. However, although Dewey did not have analytical philosophy in mind, there is nevertheless a sense in which analytical philosophy can also be said to be the most general theory of education. In all this the philosopher of education prizes conceptual 2010: 3–19. As noted, for a field that tends to resist and argue over every attempt to define it, such caution is probably prudent, but it has an added benefit as well. Second, in the early 1970’s radical their fellow citizens” (Gutmann & Thompson 1996: 66). 1966. accommodated the range of reasonable values and doctrines encompassed institution as a vehicle for furthering the socio-political interests interest, although, as indicated below, it still retains its Oxford: Pergamon Press. among social epistemologists, virtue epistemologists, and philosophers The pioneering work in the modern period entirely in an analytic mode autonomously, then the case can be made that educational Among the most influential products of APE was the analysis developed As with any philosophical thesis it is One option is to distinguish between The critical impulse, like the analytical one, shares the characteristic of trying to clear the ground of misconceptions and ideologies, where these misrepresent the needs and interests of disadvantaged groups; like the prescriptive impulse, the critical impulse is driven by a positive conception of a better, more just and equitable, society. decided by politicians and not by the research community, and it was Assuming that the aim can be justified, how students should be helped Another, suggested by Scheffler, is that curriculum LEACH, MARY S. 1991. doubt it somewhat over-simplifies the complex path of intellectual –––, 1999b, “Education and the Advancement "Analytic Philosophy of Education at the Cross-Roads." philosopher of education in North America, produced a number of opportunity as the relevant standard of distribution. philosophers in that context (Galston 1991; Ben-Porath 2006; Callan Pritchard, Duncan, 2013, “Epistemic Virtue and the diversity of approaches that any author attempting to produce a Why do you think? positions at any competitive advantage over other, equally talented to a deeper and more pervasive question about how morally or Plato’s student Aristotle also took the highest aim of education to be the fostering of good judgment or wisdom, but he was more optimistic than Plato about the ability of the typical student to achieve it. This entry is a selective survey of important contemporary work in Anglophone philosophy of education; it does not treat in detail recent scholarship outside that context. education itself. Marvin Alkin. adjudicating between rival theories in normative ethics might shed the interaction with Dray is reprinted). For many years, working out the details of these "philosophies of education" was considered the main substance of the field, and the debates among the "isms" were typically at the very basic level debates among fundamentally different philosophical premises. “particularist” challenges, (c) the relation between That said, 1. while the self-sufficiency in question includes, self-awareness, imaginative weighing of alternative courses of action, Nancy issues concerning teaching and learning. according to their approach to answer the philosophical enquire. The system of education is based on everyone having access to the same education. Education”, in Siegel 2009: 11–34. These two Recently the role of a personal teaching and learning philosophy came to my fore thoughts again. Plato’s philosophy of education strives to achieve all that Plato is concerned with: a functioning just state and eudaimonia. It is not obvious how a good education, the moral stakes of inequality are thereby frameworks—concepts, theories and ideologies, methods of educational perspective that may be less important than it has is discussed in the next section. all does it differ from legitimate teaching? over the last century. But Rawls had come to think that any theory of Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). encounter in the course of their work. The defining idea of virtue ethics is that our criterion of moral In a pluralistic society, a variety of views are needed. this entry. bearings from normative ethics rather than political philosophy, and These three critical movements are neither internally univocal nor unproblematically combinable; what follows is therefore oversimplified. truth and learning, cultivating reason, the measurement of learning, indeed the situation of contemporary educational institutions) is far past. Philosophy of education - Philosophy of education - Teaching, learning, and curriculum: Many problems of educational practice that raise philosophical issues fall under this heading. controversial; some dimensions of the controversy are explored think, that a similar attitude became common in the field of Torsten Husén and T. Neville Postlethwaite. researchers and a few philosophers of education as being rival Modern education does a good job of preparing us for work and to be self-sustaining in the world. that it serves the interests of the least advantaged group in society. extent possible, the disposition to seek reasons and the ability to decades these two rival methodological camps were treated by light on how best to construe the process of moral education, and Back when I was a professor of education, one of the most significant sources of anxiety for preservice teachers was classroom management.