The use of tin as a plating material dates to the time of the Roman Empire, when copper vessels were coated with tin to keep them bright looking. "None of them were perfect conductors of electricity at room temperature.".

Tin has 51 isotopes of which 8 are stable. Electron configuration and elemental properties of tin. It is nontoxic, ductile, malleable, and adapted to all kinds of cold-working, such as rolling, spinning, and extrusion.

Tin fluoride and tin pyrophosphate, in which tin is in the +2 oxidation state, are used in dentifrices. Although it took many years of experimenting to perfect this new technique, tin cans began replacing bottles for food packaging by the mid-1800s. Tin makes up only about 0.001 percent of the earth‘s crust, but it was well known in the ancient world. Its discoverer and discovery date are unknown. Tin resists corrosion, making it an ideal covering for relatively cheap steel. It is a soft, silvery white metal with a bluish tinge, known to the ancients in bronze, an alloy with copper. Atomic symbol (on the Periodic Table of Elements): Sn 3. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Here are 16 fun facts about Tintin and his adventures that you might not know: The comic. The latter site, on the border between the Czech Republic and eastern Germany, was one of the rare instances of close…. Here solder is being removed from a circuit board. Thin sheets of iron coated with tin, called tinplate, became available in England during the mid-1600s and were used to make metal containers. Up until the early 1900s tin foil was used for wrapping food. The chemical symbol of tin is Sn.

Elemental tin is apparently nontoxic, and quantities of tin up to 300 parts per million, as dissolved by foods packaged in tin-plated containers and cooking utensils, are not harmful. Actual prices may vary based on region, supplier, or various other factors. Organic tin compounds commonly used as biocides and fungicides are, however, toxic to human beings. Alpha tin is a semiconductor, but is difficult to make. Tin has been known since ancient times. It is during this process that tin is extracted. The can had its origins in the perennial problem of how to feed an on-the-move army. When bent, tin makes an eerie, crackling “cry” as its crystals crush each other. The tin can arrived on American shores in 1818, and Thomas Kensett & Co, a manufacturing company, patented the tin can in America in 1825. Stannic compounds of significance include stannic chloride, SnCl4, widely used as a stabilizer for perfumes and as a starting material for other tin salts; and stannic oxide, SnO2, a useful catalyst in certain industrial processes and a polishing powder for steel. The ancient Greeks obtained their tin by sea-trade and referred to the source as ‘The Cassiterides’, meaning Tin Islands. Tin is widely used for plating steel cans used as food containers, in metals used for bearings, and in solder. Tin is resistant to oxidation in air and resists corrosion in sea water, distilled water and tap water. But tin still has its uses. According to the Jefferson National Linear Accelerator Laboratory, the properties of tin are: 1. When tin is heated in air, it forms dioxide and in basic oxides, it forms stannate salt. Britannia Kids Holiday Bundle! (For a full treatment of tin mining, refining, and recovery, see tin processing.). The most abundant is 120Sn at 32.6%. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This article was most recently revised and updated by, tin - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), tin - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up).

The symbol Sn, comes from the Latin word for tin – stannum. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

When tin is heated in air, it forms dioxide and in basic oxides, it forms stannate salt. In studies conducted by the US Geological Survey, tin can be extracted from different types of ores, but mainly from Cassiterite (SnO2). Once extracted, the oxide ore is reduced using coal inside a furnace. Density: 7.287 grams per cubic centimeter 5. No high-grade deposits are known. Archaeologists have also determined that the ancients sometimes used tin as is. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? In the cosmos there are 1.33 atoms of tin per 1 × 106 atoms of silicon, an abundance roughly equal to that of niobium, ruthenium, neodymium, or platinum. Tin is extracted from various ores, chiefly from Cassiterite (SnO2). The standard atomic weight for tin is 118.71 u. Cheaper, lighter and recyclable, aluminum rapidly overtook tin and steel. The oldest tin mines were those in Cornwall, which were worked at least as early as Phoenician times but are no longer of major consequence, and Spain. In compounds tin is usually in the divalent state (Sn2+) or tetravalent state (Sn4+). Tin is widely used for plating steel cans used as food containers, in metals used for bearings, and in solder. Tin has been used and discovered by the ancients. So tin may be unassuming, but it's not unimportant. Crystals of pure metallic tin begin to form on the zinc. Tin Facts and Properties. Tin is a metal that is soft, ductile and malleable. Commercial quality tins are resistant to tin pest as a result of the inhibiting effects of minor impurities. Pewter, for example, is mostly tin. Before 3500 BC. Tin cans are typically made by forming a piece of sheet metal into a cylinder, and the edges if there are any, are welded, soldered, or adhered together, while the lid and top edge is often folded into place by a machine, to seal the can. Future US, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street, 15th Floor, China led the world in tin production in the early 21st century, accounting for nearly half of all production; Indonesia, Peru, and Bolivia were also top producers. How well do you know their symbols? In 2011,  archaeologists uncovered a small pure tin near a Jewish temple in Jerusalem. White tin has a body-centred tetragonal crystal structure, and gray tin has a face-centred cubic structure. Present day ‘tinfoil’ to cover or wrap food is usually made from aluminum.